Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. While they are less common than standalone Java applications, Java applets run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications and can be embedded in HTML pages.

The Java platform has become a mainstay of enterprise IT development since the introduction of the Enterprise Edition in 1998, in two different ways:

Through the coupling of Java to the web server, the Java platform has become a leading platform for integrating the Web with enterprise backend systems. This has allowed companies to move part or all of their business to the Internet environment by way of highly interactive online environments (such as highly dynamic websites) that allow the customer direct access to the business processes (e.g. online banking websites, airline booking systems and so on). This trend has continued from its initial Web-based start:

The Java platform has matured into an Enterprise Integration role in which legacy systems are unlocked to the outside world through bridges built on the Java platform. This trend has been supported for Java platform support for EAI standards like messaging and Web services and has fueled the inclusion of the Java platform as a development basis in such standards as SCA, XAM and others.

Java has become the standard development platform for many companies' IT departments, which do most or all of their corporate development in Java. This type of development is usually related to company-specific tooling (e.g. a booking tool for an airline) and the choice for the Java platform is often driven by a desire to leverage the existing Java infrastructure to build highly intelligent and interconnected tools.

The Java platform has become the main development platform for many software tools and platforms that are produced by third-party software groups (commercial, open source and hybrid) and are used as configurable (rather than programmable) tools by companies. Examples in this category include Web servers, application servers, databases, enterprise service buses, business process management (BPM) tools and content management systems.

.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library known as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment) known as Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. (As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code".) FCL and CLR together constitute .NET Framework.

FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with .NET Framework and other libraries. .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.

.NET Framework started out as a proprietary framework, although the company worked to standardize the software stack almost immediately, even before its first release. Despite the standardization efforts, developers - particularly those in the free and open-source software communities - expressed their uneasiness with the selected terms and the prospects of any free and open-source implementation, especially with regard to software patents. Since then, Microsoft has changed .NET development to more closely follow a contemporary model of a community-developed software project, including issuing an update to its patent promise to address the concerns.

.NET Framework led to a family of .NET platforms targeting mobile computing, embedded devices, alternative operating systems and browser plugins. A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones. .NET Micro Framework is targeted at severely resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight was available as a web browser plugin. Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines. .NET Core targets cross-platform and cloud-based workloads in addition to the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).

PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.

PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface (CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications.

The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, leaving the canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.

PHP development began in 1995 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage. He extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, and called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI.

WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL. WordPress is installed on a web server, which either is part of an Internet hosting service or is a network host itself; the first case may be on a service like, for example, and the second case is a computer running the software package An example of the second case is a local computer configured to act as its own web server hosting WordPress for single-user testing or learning purposes. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system. WordPress was used by more than 26.4% of the top 10 million websites as of April 2016.WordPress is reportedly the easiest and most popular website management or blogging system in use on the Web, supporting more than 60 million websites.

It was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little, as a fork of b2/cafelog. WordPress is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license from the Free Software Foundation.

WordPress users may install and switch between different themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website and they can be installed without altering the content or health of the site. Every WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress "Appearance" administration tool in the dashboard or theme folders may be uploaded via FTP.