Wireless sensor networks (wsns) will be integrated into the future internet as one of the components of the internet of things, and will become globally addressable by any entity connected to the internet. despite the great potential of this integration, it also brings new threats, such as the exposure of sensor nodes to attacks originating from the internet. in this context, lightweight authentication and key agreement protocols must be in place to enable end-to-end secure communication. recently, amin et al. proposed a three-factor mutual authentication protocol for wsn. however, we identified several flaws in their protocol. we found that their protocol suffers from smart card loss attack where the user identity and password can be guessed using offline brute force techniques. moreover, the protocol suffers from known session-specific temporary information attack which leads to the disclosure of session keys in other sessions. furthermore, the protocol is vulnerable to tracking attack and fails to fulfill user untraceability. to address these deficiencies, we present a lightweight and secure user authentication protocol based on the rabin cryptosystem which has the characteristic of computational asymmetry. we conduct a formal verification of our proposed protocol using proverif in order to demonstrate that our scheme fulfills the required security features.


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We use the most recent 3FA protocol of as a case study to show the challenge of designing a lightweight authentication protocol suitable for Internet integrated WSN. Then we propose an authentication protocol for Internet integrated WSN which exploits the computational asymmetry feature of Rabin cryptosystem. Amin and Biswas  showed that the protocol of  has several security weaknesses, including offline identity guessing attack, offline password guessing attack, impersonation attack.




  • We present an efficient and secure 3FA protocol based on the Rabin cryptosystem. Unlike other public key-based encryption algorithms such as RSA and ECC, Rabin has the characteristic of computational asymmetry.
  • In this case, the encryption is very efficient while the decryption is relatively heavyweight. This feature is particular well suited for Internet integrated WSN because the mobile device of users is generally resource constrained while the gateway has no such restriction



  • The public key primitive Rabin cryptosystem is employed to avoid SSLA and tracking attack.  The concept of fuzzy verifier is adopted to achieve local password verification. The timestamp mechanism mitigates session specific temporary information attack. Our new protocol also has 9 phases.
  • The protocol suffers from KSSTIA when the temporal parameters in an authentication session are disclosed. Finally, the protocol is prone to tracking attack and fails to fulfill user un traceability. Next, we have presented a lightweight and secure three factor authentication protocol based on Rabin cryptosystem. We conducted a formal verification of the proposed protocol by using Pro Verif to demonstrate that it fulfills the required security features.
  • A proposed a signcryption scheme to protect the information flow between a sensor and an entity outside the WSN, which fulfills confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation in one step.




  • A proposed the Ladon security protocol which provides E2E authentication and key establishment mechanism for resource-constrained devices. 
  • To prevent potential eavesdroppers from tracking users’ access patterns, they also presented a privacy-enhanced Ladon protocol by integrating the original protocol with the PrivaKERB user privacy framework for Kerberos





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Operating system  : Windows XP/7.

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[1] S. Hong et al.,SNAIL: An IP-based wireless sensor network approach to the internet of things", IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 34- 42, Dec. 2010.  

[2] R. Roman, "Key Management Systems for Sensor Networks in the Context of the Internet of Things", Computers & Electrical Eng., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 147-159, Mar. 2011.

[3] J. Granjal, E. Monteiro, J. S. Silva, "Security in the integration of lowpower wireless sensor networks with the internet: A survey", Ad Hoc Netw., vol. 24, pp. 264-287, Jan. 2015. 

[4] Z. Sheng, S. Yang, Y. Yu, A. Vasilakos, J. McCann, K. Leung, "A survey on the IETF protocol suite for the Internet of Things: Standards challenges and opportunities", IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 91-98, Dec. 2013.

[5] 6LoWPAN Working Group,

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